THE BAT INTEREST GROUP
OF KWA ZULU NATAL
Copyright (C) 2011 Bat Interest Group of KwaZulu Natal All Rights Reserved
Copyright Paul Buchel
Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus.
It occurs throughout the world. In South Africa it is found everywhere except in Kwa-Zulu Natal.
The infection enters the body through the lungs. Histoplasma fungus grows as a mold in the soil, and infection results from breathing in airborne particles. Soil contaminated with bird or bat droppings may have a higher concentration of histoplasma.
There may be a short period of active infection, or it can become chronic and spread throughout the body. Histoplasmosis may have no symptoms. Most people who do develop symptoms will have a flu-like syndrome and lung (pulmonary) complaints related to pneumonia or other lung involvement. Those with chronic lung disease (such as emphysema and bronchiectasis) are at higher risk of a more severe infection.
About 10% of people with histoplasmosis will develop inflammation (irritation and swelling) in response to the initial infection. This can affect the skin, bones or joints, or the lining of the heart (pericardium). These symptoms are not due to fungal infection of those body parts, but to the inflammation.
In a small number of patients, histoplasmosis may become widespread (disseminated), and involve the blood, meninges (outer covering of the brain), adrenal glands, and other organs. Very young or very old people, or those who have a weakened immune system (due to AIDS, cancer, or transplant, for example) are at higher risk for disseminated histoplasmosis
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